The process underlying sponsor identification is poorly understood and scholars have not adopted a conceptual framework that can guide research concerned with recall and attitude toward sponsors. Although the expectancy-congruent and expectancy-incongruent memory models in social psychology were developed to explain encoding, storage, and retrieval for person perception, they have been applied successfully to advertising and consumer behavior for explaining both recall and attitude formation. In order to answer these questions, we will first provide a brief synthesis of congruity theory and how it has been applied to person memory and attitude formation in social psychology. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(August), 318-330. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Sandler, Dennis M. and David Shani (1998), "Ambush Marketing: Is Confusion To Blame for the Flickering Fame?" Solomon, Michael (1996), Consumer Behavior, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Srull, Thomas K. (1981), "Person Memory: Some Tests of Associative Storage and Retrieval Models," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 7(6), 440-463. For example, D’Alessandro (1998) reports that 55% of the respondents in one study correctly identified Reebok as an Olympic sponsor at the Atlanta Games, but 70% thought non-sponsor Nike was in fact a sponsor. Jagre et al. Schema theory suggests that consumer CSR perception and brand credibility act as serial mediators. The results indicate stronger social identification with the sponsored event influences the favorability they attribute to sponsor motives and promotes stronger perceptions of fit between the sponsor and the sponsored activity. Researchers conducting studies on incongruity have used a variety of terminologies interchangeably such as congruent/incongruent, expected/unexpected, and consistent/inconsistent (Heckler and Childers 1992). Dimitra Papadimitriou, Kyriaki Kiki Kaplanidou, Nikolaos Papacharalampous, Sport event-sponsor fit and its effects on sponsor purchase intentions: a non-consumer perspective among athletes, volunteers and spectators, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 10.1108/JBIM-09 … For example, D’Alessandro (1998) reports that 55% of the respondents in one study correctly identified Reebok as an Olympic sponsor at the Atlanta Games, but 70% thought non-sponsor Nike was in fact a sponsor. One danger with this measure of memory is that it is easily contaminated by response biases; individuals are more likely to guess that an item that is congruent with an expectation rater than an item which is incongruent with that expectation (Stangor and McMillan 1992). FIGURE 2 CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF EFFECTS OF FIT BETWEEN SPONSOR AND EVENT FIGURE 3 EXAMPLE OF FIT IN TERMS OF AFFECTIVE INTENSITY AND RECALL WHEN NIKE SPONSORS VARIOUS EVENTS The second study of fit between sponsor and event was conducted by Johar and Pham (1999). Consequently, managers considering sponsorship would benefit from the development of a scale measuring degrees of "fit" for guiding choice of sponsor-event relationships. The application of congruity theory and classical conditioning theory to sport sponsorship focuses on the fit between the sponsor and the event. Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 439-445. In this research stream, arguments are supportive of the need for congruence between the celebrity and the product in order for the message to be perceived as credible and believable. Kamins, Michael. Although the results of the congruity research applied to celebrity endorser advertising have not supported the relationships between incongruity and affect, we will argue that when developing this conceptual framework the findings related to celebrity endorser advertising are probably not generalizable to sponsorship. Schemas are "representations of experiences that guide action, perception and thought. In contrast, moderate incongruities are regarded as "interesting and positively valued" (Mandler 1982, p. 22), thereby leading to more positive affect than elicited by either extreme incongruity or congruity, toward which response will only be mild. In practice, the (in)congruity between a sponsor and its associated event may lie between the extremes of a perfect match or mismatch. Johar and Pham (1999) proposed that "in sponsor identification tasks, consumers rely on the semantic overlap between features of the event and those of potential sponsors" (p. 300), and as a consequence, sponsor identification is biased toward brands that are semantically related to an event. Attitudes Attitudes have been defined as relatively stable opinions containing a cognitive element and an emotional element (Wade and Tavris 1996). David J. Curry, University of Cincinnati, USA. Obviously, such a result is contrary to hypotheses of relatedness but supports the argument that unrelated or inconsistent fit results in higher recall. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. An "unexpected and inconsistent" fit would be the Bank of America sponsoring a sporting event or Nike sponsoring a wine and food festival. In other words, self-congruity with sponsorship reveals the level of congruity with consumer’s self-image and the image of the event. In support of the theories developed in social psychology, results of incongruity research applied to consumer behavior demonstrate that when information is somehow incongruent with prior expectations, individuals will engage in more effortful or elaborative processing which resulted in superior recall and recognition (Heckler and Childers 1982; Myers-Levy and Tybout 1989; Wansink and Ray 1996). In the case of event sponsorship, Communicating Corporate Responsibility to Fit Consumer Perceptions: How Sincerity Drives Event and Sponsor Outcomes examines, in greater detail, the extent to which an event is a good fit for consumers’ perceived values of a sponsor. Results confirmed that event organizers and sponsors can benefit from the use of perceived fit as a means of shaping brand attitudes when they sponsor art- and/or social-related events. An inconsistent fit between a sponsor company and an event can be operationalized by the degree to which the relationship is perceived to be incongruent with viewer expectations and pre-existing knowledge structures associated with the theme (Heckler and Childers 1992). Psychology and Marketing, 15(4). These are developed as a function of the frequency of encounters with relevant instantiations where new encounters are evaluated against existing schemas" (Mandler 1982, p. 3). The opposite should hold when the sponsor and event relationship is completely congruent (high fit). Houston, Michael J., Terry L. Childers, and Susan E. Heckler (1987), "Picture-Word Consistency and the Elaborative Processing of Advertisements," Journal of Marketing Research, 24(December), 359-369. We do this by developing a conceptual model showing how self-congruity with a sponsorship event affects brand loyalty. Can the congruity perspective help explain and predict the right "fit" between sponsorand event when the goal is to reach objectives such as increased awareness and enhancement of image? The results of the meta-analysis of social psychology showed that overall, memory was better for expectancy-incongruent than for expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition measures (Stangor and McMillan 1992). Wansink, Brian and Michael L. Ray (1996), "Advertising Strategies to Increase Usage Frequency," Journal of Marketing, 60(1), 31-46. Moderate schema incongruity led to more favorable evaluations than either schema congruity or extreme schema incongruity. Sponsor-event congruity/fit is: a. not important in event sponsorship measurement. David Hardisty, University of British Columbia, Canada To assess how to most effectively invest sponsorship resources in event marketing when the objectives are to increase awareness and enhance image, we have developed a conceptual framework that incorporates the contributions of the incongruity research developed in social psychology. He further supported the concept proposed in the associative network model, that congruent relationships are not very noteworthy and therefore do not prompt extensive elaboration or get deeply processed. Some scholars have highlighted the ability of sponsorship to target a wide and/or specific range of audiences and the relationships between the characteristics of events and the demographics, lifestyle, and AIO (activities, interests, and opinions) of the attendees or viewers (Cornwell and Maignan 1998; Nicholls, Roslow, and Laskey 1994). McDaniel, Stephen R. (1999), "An Investigation of Match-up Effects in Sport Sponsorship Advertising: The Implications of Consumer Advertising Schemas," Psychology and Marketing, 16(2), 163-184. Sponsor-event congruity/fit is: A) not important in event sponsorship measurement. In support of the theories developed in social psychology, results of incongruity research applied to consumer behavior demonstrate that when information is somehow incongruent with prior expectations, individuals will engage in more effortful or elaborative processing which resulted in superior recall and recognition (Heckler and Childers 1982; Myers-Levy and Tybout 1989; Wansink and Ray 1996). These schemas might also contain product categories that are typically part of fans’ event experience (McDaniel 1999). Journal of Marketing Research, 18(August), 318-330. Practitioners hope to increase the amount of attention given to an advertisement and hence, the degree to which the information being presented is processed (Heckler and Childers 1992). C) where a consumer perceives a fit between a sponsor and event. The question of fit or congruence between the sponsor and the event is a very new area of research and only two studies, Johar and Pham (1999) and McDaniel (1999) have addressed the effects of congruence on recall and attitudes by empirical testing. According to the principle of cognitive consistency, people value harmony among their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements (Solomon 1996). Kamins, Michael. In an August 2019 MSI webinar titled, “Fit and Authenticity in Sponsorship and other Horizontal Marketing Partnerships,” Dr. Bettina Cornwellinvokes a construct for fit in a two-by-two matrix of functional and image attributes for the sponsor and the property as follows: Professor Cornwell notes th… Howard, Dennis R. and John L. Crompton (1995), Financing Sport, Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology Inc. Johar, Gita V. and Michael T. Pham (1999), "Relatedness, Prominence, and Constructive Sponsorship Identification," Journal of Marketing Research, 36(August), 299-312. This fit is referred to as fit between the sponsor and the event and is the type of fit of interes to us. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. It may therefore be proposed that: P3: Companies that sponsor events which are extremely inconsistent with viewer expectations (low fit) will produce lower attitude ratings from consumers and lead to less favorable sponsor evaluations than companies that sponsor events that are either completely consistent (high fit) or moderately consistent (moderate fit) with viewer expectations. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members. Effects of Event-Sponsor Fit on Consumers’ Attitude Toward Corporate Sponsors and intention to purchase sponsored products in Different Level of Sponsorship advertising; A Team Versus A League, (The University of Texas at Austin). Journal of Advertising Research, (August/September), 9-14. Xin (Shane) Wang, Western University, Canada Nicholls, J.A.F, Sydney Roslow, and Henry A. Laskey (1994), "Sports Event Sponsorship for Brand Promotion," Journal of Applied Business Research, 10(4), 35-40. There is, however, no evidence of congruence/fit studies in the context of product placements. Psychology and Marketing, 15(4). However, McDaniel (1999) found no support for his propositions that brands sponsoring more negatively perceived sports such as bowling would have significantly lower post-test attitudes toward the brand than brands sponsoring more positively perceived sports such as hockey or an Olympic team. Consequently, Mandler (1982) proposed that the thoughts generated after elaboration in the congruent condition are favorable because people like objects that conform to their expectations and allow predictability. Sport fans engage themselves in several forms of behaviour to lend support to their favourite sport clubs. The biggest challenge in the empirical testing of these propositions will likely be the measurement development of the "fit" construct. As mentioned earlier, one of the main objectives of companies engaging in sponsorship is to increase awareness. For the purposes of this paper, we will attempt to answer two questions: 1. However, no significant differences were found between a group exposed to an ad with league-level sponsorship and a group exposed to team-level sponsorship ad. During sponsor-event relationships that are characterized by extreme incongruity (low fit), the novelty of the new relationship will result in the largest increase of elaboration and result in the greatest increase of recall of the sponsor. In sum, these findings (with respect to the transfer of affect) are inconsistent with the theories of incongruity in social psychology. Extreme incongruity is defined as incongruity that requires extensive elaboration that cannot be resolved and thus leads to frustration which elicits more negative evaluations. , perception and thought led to more favorable evaluations than either schema or. A consumer perceives a fit is referred to as fit between sponsor the. 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